The Han Dynasty Integrated Confucianism and Legalism to Form

Already Xun Kuang (荀況, ca. 310 or 314 – c. 217 or 235 BC), a Confucian scholar who witnessed the chaos of Zhou`s collapse and the rise of Qin, incorporated elements of legalism into his philosophy. Xun`s basic ideas were Confucian, as he emphasized moral virtue. He wrote: The proposed way of estimating the performance of the public servant is not entirely reasonable (why punish a minister for excessive performance?), but at least it attempts to establish firm evaluation criteria, which in this case are linked to the minister`s own „offer” (Goldin 2013: 8-10). The advantages are obvious: the system prevents ministerial manipulation and reinforces the leader`s control over his officials. This last point is of particular importance to legalists. Various means by which the ruler was supposed to supervise ministers are referred to in Han Feizi and other legalistic texts as „technical” (shu術) or „rules” (shù數) (the meaning of the two terms may overlap: Creel 1974: 125-134; Yang, 2010). Both terms are similar to fa, but narrower in meaning, referring primarily to a variety of means by which the ruler controls his officials. Han Fei claims that Shu is the hallmark of Shen Buhai`s ideas, explaining its meaning as follows: The four-hundred-year debate between Confucian and legalist thinkers about human nature and the role of government in economics reflects the ongoing intellectual debate between liberals and mercantilists that began with Adam Smith`s publication of The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Liberals, like Confucian thinkers, argued for a limited role for the state in the economy, while mercantilists, like legalists of the Warring States period, argued for an increased role for the state in the economy to ensure protectionism and control human nature.

The interesting aspect is that this ongoing debate did not begin with Smith`s publication in 1776, but with The Analects of Confucius, published after his death in 479 BC. This intellectual debate turned into an all-out intellectual war during the Warring States period, when legalists began to question the assumptions inherent in Confucian thought to explain the anarchy, chaos, and constant war in which they lived. The contributions of jurists cannot be overstated, as their writings became the tools used to unite the empire in 221 BC. AD, ending the Warring States period. Moreover, the ongoing debate between liberals and mercantilists, which included notable figures such as Adam Smith, Friedrich List, Alexander Hamilton, and John Maynard Keynes, is an extension of the intellectual debate that took place between Confucians and legalists during the Warring States period until the founding of the Han Dynasty. This shows that a basic understanding and reading of history, including civilizations that may seem unknown, is essential to understanding the world today. Although the term „legalism” was only used during the Han漢 Dynasty (206/202 BC – 220 AD). A.D.) , its roots – or, more precisely, the idea of grouping together several thinkers possibly called „legalists” – go back to Han Fei 韓非 (died 233 BC), who is often considered the most important representative of this intellectual current. In chapter 43, „Defining Standards” („Ding fa” 定法) by Han Feizi 韓非子, the thinker presents himself as a synthesizer and enhancer, the ideas of two of his predecessors, Shang Yang 商鞅 (died 338 BC) and Shen Buhai 申不害 (died 337 BC).

(Han Feizi 43:397-400). The pairing of Shen Buhai and Shang Yang and the addition of Han Fei himself to them have become common since the beginning of the Han Dynasty (see, for example, Huainanzi 6:230; 11:423; 20:833). The historian Sima Qian 司馬遷 (c. 145–90 BC) identified these three thinkers as adherents of the doctrine of „fulfillment and title” (xing ming 刑名) (Shiji 62:2146; 68:2227; Translation borrowed from Goldin 2013: 8). This term was synonymous with the last fa jia (Creel 1974:140). This is a curious recommendation: the leader should cancel himself completely, both to preserve his authority against intriguing ministers and – wrongly! – to acquire a good reputation at the expense of the Minister. But this sovereign, who has neither desires nor observable views, becomes the ultimate slave of his office. For the sake of self-preservation, he must abolish his personality and be completely inundated by the system he is supposed to run. A.C. Graham provocatively notes that in Han Fei`s system, the rule „has no function that could not be performed by an elementary computer. Can we even say that in Han Fei`s system, it is the ministers who govern? (Graham 1989:291). This paradox of a captive ruler who enjoys divine omnipotence, but must abstain from activism to preserve this omnipotence, is one of the most fascinating manifestations of the internal contradiction of the authoritarian system.

When it comes from a thinker who is often described as unique authoritarian, it deserves the utmost attention. The belief that human nature is inherently evil has led to the belief that human nature and the resulting anarchy must be controlled. This led to the doctrine of legalism. Legalists use the state as a means to control human nature and prevent people from pursuing their own interests. Just as Mencius` economic policy was shaped by his belief in the rationality of the individual, the economic policies of the legalists were shaped by their belief in the irrationality of the individual and the need to control the individual in order to deal with inevitable chaos and anarchy. The Han Chinese emperor Wudi of the Han dynasty conquered Nan Yue and divided it into provinces; northern area of Vietnam, called „Chiao Chih” Chunqiu Fanlu develops an older distinction and uses the contrast of yin and yang, the associated qualities and their transformations to understand the characteristics of the world and people. One of the main features of this Han naturalistic change is the idea that „heaven/nature and humanity are one” (tian ren yi ye 天人一也, CQFL 49.1). Principles and patterns that explain how the natural world works, such as yin-yang and the five stages, also explain human characteristics, society, and behavior. There is debate about whether yin and yang are something like distinct properties belonging to objects and events, or whether they are qualities or types of qi. In some parts of the text, yin and yang are discussed as if they were special and concrete elements of the world, and in other parts of the text, yin and yang are discussed as characteristics of qi.

The Chunqiu Fanlu, unlike earlier Taoist texts, takes a partisan position here, claiming that we should place Yang above Yin. Yang is associated with positive qualities such as virtue, humanity, and life, while yin is understood as absence and is associated with the opposite characteristics of vice, violence, and death. This contrasts with earlier „Taoist” texts, which generally view Yin and Yang as mutually valuable principles of change that should be followed depending on the situation. Instead, the Chunqiu Fanlu argues that we should „honor Yang and denigrate Yin” (CQFL 43:1), and that „Yang is sublime, Yin is low.” (CQFL 43, Queen & Major 2016: 393) Accordingly, in the land of an enlightened ruler, there are no texts written in books and on bamboo strips, but the law is doctrine; There is no „speech” of the former kings, but the officials are the teachers; There is no private handling of swords, but beheading [enemies] is bravery. (Han Feizi 49:452) The second surviving text, Han Feizi 韓非子, is attributed to Han Fei, a descendant of the ruling family of the state of Hán 韓 (not to be confused with the Hàn 漢 dynasty), a tragic figure who is said to have been killed in the custody of the King of Qin, whom Han Fei wanted to serve. Of all the legalistic texts in the Han Imperial Catalogue, Han Feizi fared best during the vicissitudes of time: the 55 chapters attested in the Han Catalogue are still intact. Whether the entire book was written by Han Fei or not is controversial: considerable differences between the chapters in terms of style and argumentation lead many scholars to suspect that they come from different authors. On the other hand, the differences can be explained by the fact that they reflect Han Fei`s intellectual maturation process or the need to adapt reasoning to different target groups; and since most of the chapters offer a coherent perspective, this increases the likelihood that most of them were actually written by Han Fei (Goldin 2013).

The Darcy`s Law Is Given by

In isotropic porous media, the off-diagonal elements in the permeability tensor are zero, kij = 0 for i ≠ j and the diagonal elements are identical, kii = k, and the common form is obtained as follows, allowing the determination of the fluid flow velocity by solving a series of equations in a given range. [4] Darcy`s law governs the flow of oil, water and gas in porous media. Darcy`s law states that the flow rate at each point of the tank is given by the pressure gradient of the liquid, the viscosity of the liquid and its effective permeability to the liquid. That is, if gravity is neglected, the above equation is given by Alan Hazen. Permeability depends on the shape and soil of soil particles. The permeability varies with the square of the diameter of the particle size. If there is only one liquid phase in the pores, a momentum equation is required, but for a general two-phase formulation, there are separate equations for the unit cross-sectional mass flow of the liquid and gaseous phases Qml and Qmg. These are each given by: Class 12 Physics consists of 10 interesting chapters, all of which are important in the field of physics, as they lay the foundation for many different subjects in higher education levels. Students panic because of the extensive curriculum, which leads to stress and poor exam performance. Preparing physics could be as simple but interesting as playing your favorite game if the concepts are broken down into small themes and experiments that can be done practically. Therefore, physics is not difficult, but interesting, provided that the right attention is given. Darcy`s law can be considered in terms of two components, flow and pressure drop.

Flow is usually determined by hydraulic conductivity, but also affects viscosity. Therefore, the resistance to flow in a porous medium with variable permeability (e.g. porous rock, porous sand, porous concrete, …) is generally not constant and may depend on the structure of the porous medium or the viscosity of the liquid (e.g. water in a rock). The pressure drop is given. where ΔP is the pressure drop, fluid velocity, permeability and pipe length. In characteristic small gas flows (e.g. very fine sand, nanoporous structures, etc.), particle-wall interactions become more frequent, resulting in additional wall friction (Knudsen friction).

For flow in this area, where viscous friction and Knudsen are present, a new formulation must be used. Knudsen presented a semi-empirical model of flow in the transition regime, based on his experiments on small capillaries. [10] [11] For a porous medium, the Knudsen equation can be given as follows,[11] where N is the molar flow, Rg is the gas constant, T is the temperature and DeffK is the effective Knudsen diffusivity of the porous medium. The model can also be derived from the binary friction model (BFM) based on the first principle. [12] [13] The BFM differential equation of transition flux in porous media is given as follows[12] Darcy`s law is a phenomenologically derived constitutive equation that describes the flow of a liquid through a porous medium. The law was formulated by Henry Darcy based on the results of experiments on the flow of water through sand beds. It also forms the scientific basis for fluid permeability used in geosciences, particularly hydrogeology. Although Darcy`s law was determined experimentally by Darcy as an expression of conservation of momentum, it has since been derived by homogenizing the Navier–Stokes equations. It is analogous to Fourier`s law in the field of thermal conduction, Ohm`s law in the field of electrical lattices or Fick`s law in diffusion theory. One application of Darcy`s Law is the flow of water through an aquifer; Darcy`s law, along with the mass conservation equation, is equivalent to the groundwater flow equation, one of the fundamental relationships of hydrogeology. Darcy`s law is also used to describe the flows of oil, water and gas through oil deposits. Darcy`s law at constant height is a simple proportional relationship between the instantaneous discharge rate through a porous medium, the viscosity of the liquid and the pressure drop over a given distance.

A measure of flow resistance is relative phase permeability, which is usually a number between 0 and 1. Therefore, the effective permeability of a liquid is the absolute permeability multiplied by its relative permeability. The concept of effective permeability explains why oil recovery is not 100% in a water flood or immiscible gas flood, even if the sweep is close to 100%. In cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z), the helical flow velocity is given by: The equation is often described as a generalization of Darcy`s law. As the flow rate increases, the pressure through the fluid also decreases. The permeability of the material determines how much liquid can flow into a given area, and the effect of this flow is a drop in the charge of the liquid. The formula is, where Q is the flow, Δp is the pressure drop, and L is the length of the pipe. Here K is the permeability, the Darcy velocity and ν is the viscosity of the fluid.

The equation is true regardless of whether the system is static (no flow) or whether a flow occurs. The mathematical formulation of Darcy`s law was developed by J.D. Fardin, R. C. Desai and S. M. Wise in 1975. More recently, T. M. Truskett has provided a rigorous mathematical derivation of the equation.

where ⊗ is the tensor product operator and Vl and Vg are the specific volumetric flow rates (volume flow per unit cross-section) for the liquid and gaseous phases, respectively.

Textualism Legal Interpretation

The focus here is on an influential new form of textualism, sometimes called the new textualism. The new textualists are skeptical about the existence of coherent and discoverable legislative intentions. The reasons for this skepticism can be found in Section 4.1. They do not emphasize the simple meaning, but a reasonable reading of the text in context. It should be noted that it is consistent with some versions of originalism that the correct application of constitutional norms may differ from the way the constitution was originally conceived and expected. In one case, the correct application of the Constitution changes over time due to changing circumstances. The trade clause, for example, states that Congress has jurisdiction over „interstate commerce” (U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 8, Clause 3). If the relevant original aspect of the Constitution is the meaning of the words or the intention of the authors as to the rule of law to be adopted (for such intentions, see section 4.1), then changes in the economy of the country without modification of constitutional law may result in the fact that types of corporations that were not previously within the power of Congress over interstate commerce, I would like to ask the Commissioner whether he is aware that the Commission has not yet presented a proposal for a directive on environmental protection.

(Greenberg & Litman, 1998). I would like to begin with two reservations. First, this commentary distinguishes more clearly between formalist textualism and flexible textualism than is seen in practice. No self-proclaimed textualist on the Supreme Court seems to clearly favor one version or another. Instead, judges hesitate between the two×36 See note 167 below. Perhaps in part, because both have long traveled under the broader banner of „textualism.” Second, textualist practices could not be seen as falling into two well-defined categories, but as part of a continuum – tending towards the more formalistic or flexible end of the spectrum. From this perspective, this commentary provides reasons for textualists to aim for the more formalistic version – and to abandon as many practices as possible that make textualism more flexible. Although the text of the law favoured the plaintiffs` claim to Title VII, it was probably an unpleasant result for many textualists. Although textualism is (or can be) an ideologically neutral method, it has long been associated with the right-wing conservative movement.21×21. See Neal Devins & Lawrence Baum, The Company They Keep: How Partisan Divisions Came to the Supreme Court 117 (2019) (describes textualism and originalism as „two interconnected theories of legal interpretation that have reshaped Supreme Court decision-making and strengthened the right-wing conservative movement”); Steven M. Teles, The Rise of the Conservative Legal Movement 145 (2008).

And a number of self-proclaimed textualists in the justice system (including President Trump-appointed Justice Gorsuch) were selected with the enthusiastic support of social conservatives,22×22. See Jeremy W. Peters, Conservative Groups Unify to Push Neil Gorsuch`s Confirmation, N.Y. Times (February 1, 2017), [] (describes how conservative organizations, including „evangelical and anti-abortion groups,” banded together to support the appointment of Neil Gorsuch). Many strongly opposed the applicants` request.23×23. See sources cited in footnote 241 (on the reactions of social conservatives to Bostock). The lawsuit that led to Bostock also had a partisan undertone: although the Obama administration concluded in 2012 that the prohibition of sex discrimination in Title VII „by definition” includes the LGBTQ community,24×24. Macy v. Holder, No.

0120120821, 2012 WL 1435995, at *11 (E.E.O.C. 20 April 2012); see Baldwin v. Foxx, No. 0120133080, 2015 WL 4397641, at *4 (C.E.O.E. 15 July 2015). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) under the Obama administration also initiated one of three Supreme Court cases in the Bostock case. See letter from respondent Aimee Stephens, pp. 11–13, R.G.

& G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc. v. EEOC, 140 p. Ct. 1731 (2020) (No. 18-107) (describes how the EEOC filed a lawsuit after Aimee Stephens filed her complaint). The Trump administration reversed course in 2017, insisting that such an interpretation would lead to „extremes”25×25. Factum to the Federal Respondent in Support of the Reversal at 38, R.G.

& G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, 140 p. C. 1731 (No. 18-107) [hereinafter letter to the federal respondent]. and „absurd” results.26×26. Letter to the United States as amicus curiae in support of confirmation in No. 17-1618 and rescission in No.


Texas Deer Baiting Laws

The placement of commercially available mineral supplements marketed specifically and exclusively to attract or feed deer is permitted anywhere in the state except on wild lands. A person who otherwise complies with this section and hunts on private or public property adjacent to the property where bait or food is present is not contravening if the person has not participated, participated in or consented to baiting or feeding wildlife on the adjacent property. Permit: No person shall use or hunt deer bait or feed without holding an appropriate valid licence for archery or deer and an unused carcass tag. Timber restrictions apply in some counties. In these counties, the pocket limit is two legal dollars, but only one can have an inside spread of 13 inches or more. In these counties, a legal deer is defined as a deer with: Ministry regulations make it illegal to place or distribute food, salt or minerals to feed or attract deer or moose: it appears that the use of deer food on private land is legal, except during certain periods. Deer hunting for bait, except on public lands and in the disease surveillance zone Animal feed is a substance consisting of grains, minerals, salt, fruits, vegetables, hay or other foodstuffs that may attract deer or moose for reasons other than hunting. Power of any kind is illegal in DMU 333, DMU 419 and DMU 487. In the rest of Michigan, the following rules apply: R12-4-303 A 2 c, page 126 The use of bait, attractants or blanket odors containing deer urine to collect wildlife is illegal. All antlerless deer caught in the following counties during archery, juveniles only, muzzle-loading deer or the four antlerless hunting days during the general season must be reported to the ministry via a mobile app or online within 24 hours of harvest. It appears that it is legal to use deer food up to 10 days before hunting, and the food must absolutely be removed by September 1.

Baggage limits are set by county. No person shall exceed the annual catch of five white-tailed deer, including not more than three males. The annual baggage limit does not apply to MLDP properties. No person may, on the written advice of the staff of the Ministère, continue to place or distribute food, salt, minerals or similar substances for any purpose if the placement of such material would attract or feed deer. Nothing in this Regulation should be interpreted as restricting genuine agronomic plantings (including wild fodder parcels) or the supply of food to farmed animals. It is illegal to make, put or use salt licking on land inhabited by deer or bears. NOTE: Read the description of the use of the tag on your permit carefully before attaching it to harvested deer. Texas allows the use of manual, oral, recorded or electronic calls from deer. Bait is allowed on private, but not public, property. You can`t use dogs to track deer in Texas, but they can be used to track injured deer. Deer or Moose Hunting Bait (WAC 220-414-030) „Bait” is any substance that could be used as bait, food or attraction for deer or moose.

Except as otherwise provided in this section, it is illegal to hunt deer and moose with any type of bait placed, abandoned, deposited, distributed, dispersed or otherwise used to attract the deer or moose with the intent to hunt them. If the volume of bait accessible to wildlife exceeds 10 gallons The bait of a single licence holder may not be placed within 200 metres of another known bait site or bait site of the same licence holder. If you have trouble sitting in a deer blind, grab a book, an electronic device with earplugs, so you can listen to music, or maybe a small radio with earplugs to watch a football game on the weekend. Success in deer hunting means being in the right place at the right time. The longer you sit in a good place, the more likely you are. It is illegal to use automatic weapons, air guns, or pellet guns when hunting game in Texas. Rimfire ammunition is illegal for deer hunting in the state. Bow hunters must use broad-headed arrowheads; Explosive and poisonous spikes are prohibited.

Hunters can hunt deer with crossbows during the general opening season. The state allows hunters with disabilities to use crossbows during archery season in several counties. All crossbows must have a minimum pulling weight of 125 pounds, have mechanical safety and have a reserve of 25 inches or more. In compiling this list, it was interesting to see the differences between states in the treatment of deer feeding. Each state has its own hunting regulations and unique quirks, ranging from absolute bans on the use of any form of deer food to extremely lax regulations on its use.

Temps Legal De Pause Travail

The Labour Code stipulates© that the employee© must be paid©© after six hours of actual work. Apart from the obligation to take 20 minutes a day for 6 hours of work, the break is organized differently in each company. 💡 In practice, companies allow short breaks outside the mandatory break and do not deduct© them from working hours© (which are usually©©scheduled for©the lunch break). Be careful not to take this type of excessive break. The employee is not obliged to take a single 20-minute break: he can completely split this duration (example: a 10-minute break in the morning and a 10-minute break in the afternoon or 4 5-minute breaks to smoke a cigarette at work). On the other hand, if the law does not oblige the employer to pay his employees©during breaks, the collective agreement may require this. With regard to lunch breaks, in many companies the rules in force are governed by a collective agreement, which may provide for a minimum duration, often between 30 minutes and 2 hours. Breaks are not paid if they do not represent the actual working time, i.e. if the employee is not at the employer`s disposal. The employer is therefore entitled to decide that the break is exercised exclusively at the workplace, whether for safety or other reasons. Summary Definition of break time Minimum break duration Duration of lunch break Remuneration for break time Abuse of break time: sanctions What is break time? Time to. For minors, the law provides for a longer minimum break. According to the Labour Code, children under the age of 18 may take a break of at least 30 minutes if their daily working time exceeds 4 and a half hours.

It is very important to inform employees of their breaks at work. In fact, many do not know how it happens according to the law! Wondering if an employer can ask the employee© to take their mandatory break in installments? No, the employer does not have the option of dividing© the mandatory break time (20 minutes) of employees©. The law does not require payment for break times. The law states that once an employee works at least 6 hours a day, they must take a break of 20 consecutive minutes. It is perfectly legal to grant this break for lunch, as this break can be granted before 6 hours have passed. In this case, the employee has 20 consecutive minutes to eat at lunchtime and has no other time to relax during the rest of the day. It is not possible to fragment these 20 minutes. Some provisions of the Treaty provide for a longer break. It should be noted that the right to rest for a minor employee is 30 consecutive minutes per 4h30 of actual work during the day. Break time is a short-term©work stoppage in the workplace.

During the break period, the employee is not under the direction of his employer. The main consequence is that the break is generally not remunerated, as it is not counted as actual working time. Again, however, a collective agreement or collective agreement may contain provisions that are more favourable to the worker. In other words, the employer cannot force the employee© to take several short breaks (e.g. 2 times 10 minutes). If he does so, he does not comply with his obligation and must therefore grant the employee an additional break of at least 20 consecutive© minutes. Labour law is clear on this point, the 20 minutes must be consistent©(2). It should be noted that minors benefit from a longer minimum break time. The Labour Code provides for a minimum break of 30 consecutive minutes if their daily working time exceeds 4 and a half hours. The law distinguishes the cigarette break from the legal 20-minute break. The time it takes an employee to go to the bathroom, pour themselves a coffee or smoke a cigarette is considered a natural need. There is therefore a tolerance for these small periods of rest added to the 20 minutes daily.

Breaks at work are sometimes a source of litigation in companies. Update on workers` rights and employers` obligations regarding work breaks. Remember to check what`s in© your collective agreement. © If it is cheaper than the length©of the break, it (the©Convention) must apply. No, time spent dressing and undressing should not be remunerated as actual working time. Traditionally, companies offer a second break, called a lunch break, which lasts from 45 minutes to 1:30 a.m. and provides some space. The daily rest period, whether night or day work, must be 11 consecutive hours between two working days. The rest period between night work and day work must be respected by the employer. In the case of night work, the night worker`s weekly working time, calculated over a period of twelve consecutive weeks, may not exceed 40 hours. All employees also benefit from a legal rest period of 2 working days with 11 consecutive hours between 2 working days.

The Labour Code also provides for a minimum weekly rest period of 35 consecutive hours. As a rule, the weekly rest is carried out on Saturday and Sunday or Sunday and Monday. A partnership or settlement agreement©may provide for a longer© break period. Work breaks are one of the rights of workers. An employee`s working hours are strictly regulated by the Labour Code. Don`t impose harsh conditions on them and listen to them. A one-hour lunch break accompanied by small regular breaks during the day is a good base for every employee. During the break period, the employee© is not under the direction of his employer.

It may happen that an employer has the impression that its employees are abusing their breaks (breaks that are too frequent or too long). These employers then have the possibility to sanction certain abuses of rest periods. These sanctions can range from a simple reprimand or warning to disciplinary dismissal or even dismissal for misconduct. Collective agreements may contain special conditions for breaks in the workplace. Some may provide for a longer break than that provided for in the Labour Code. There are a few exceptions to this principle that allow break times to be included in actual working hours: if the break at work has a tradition, you can`t do anything with it! End©Break time is a period of time© during which an employee© can be released. The break is generally not paid©© because it is not©counted©as actual working time: titleContent. According to the Labour Code, full-time employment is equivalent to 35 hours of actual work per week. This corresponds to 7-hour days. During these days, the employer must legally provide a break, which may correspond to the coffee break or lunch break. It is not possible to derogate from this legal provision. On the other hand, break time must be remunerated if it fulfils the conditions of actual working time.

This is particularly the case if the employee complies with his employer`s instructions during his break (example: if the employer waiting for a call asks an employee to monitor the phone during his break time). On the other hand, the break, during which the employee is only required to behave irreproachably and to remain in work clothes, does not constitute working time (judgment No. 18-18836 of the Social Chamber of the Court of Cassation of 3 June 2020).

Tcb Legal Video Services

Mobile video conferencing is now an easy and safe way to participate or make statements without leaving your home or office. Its ease of use makes it a great option for saving time and money. All you need is a PC, iPad, or smartphone to connect. Editing creates the soul of your video and adds narration, direction, and impact to your story. With your guidance and expertise, our goal is to ensure that your story is told exactly the way you want it to. All our videographers shoot in digital format with high-resolution professional cameras. We produce legal videos that can be used as evidence, illustrations or animations for court hearings. In addition to deposit videos, we are trained to film high-resolution picture-in-picture deposits, daily videos, mediation/settlement videos, site visits and mock statements. Born and raised in Durham, North Carolina, Matt volunteers locally and visits natural disaster sites. Matt has traveled all over the world and enjoys discovering many different cultures. Born and raised in Cary, North Carolina, he enjoys traveling, acting and drawing. A fan of alternative music like the Beastie Boys and Radiohead. Brent loves music, photography, animals and basketball.

When very tight work is required, or when working in very small spaces, TCB Productions can quickly switch the aerial camera gimbal mode to our portable gimbal, allowing for smooth steadicam-style shooting. But that`s not all. We invite our clients to let their imagination run wild and imagine complicated transfer plans to build scenes like never before while offering a stable and smooth state. If a traumatic event affects your clients` quality of life, we can capture their daily struggle and help them find a beneficial solution. Our team meets or exceeds federal government requirements for safety and training in our industry. Our remote pilot operations are provided and authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration and meet the requirements of Part 107, Operation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems. When required by law, we maintain radio communication with air traffic control centers in a specific airspace.

Tasa Maxima De Interes Legal En Peru

2021 (28/04) The BCRP Board of Directors has agreed on a methodology for determining maximum interest rates©. (14/10) Update of maximum interest rates for the period November 2021 to April 2022. 2022 (11/04) Update of maximum interest rates©©for the period May-October 2022. So how can we lower the interest rate? Well, reduce the risks associated with loans made not only by companies in the financial system, but by each lender. With regard to interest on the active and passive functioning of entities in the financial system, Circular No. 0018-2019-BCRP stipulates that the conventional balancing and standstill interest rate is determined by free competition in the financial market and is expressed in annual effective values. 1. How are interests regulated in Peru? 2. Some proposals/alternatives to achieve a reduction in interest rates Following the publication of Law No. 31143 – „Law protecting consumers of financial services against usury” on April 29, 2021, Circular No. 0008-2021-BCRP (the „Circular”) approved by the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of Peru (BCRP) was published. which sets the maximum conventional compensatory and moratorium interest rates applicable to the operations of financial system entities in their portfolios of consumer credit, small amount consumer credit (maximum ITU 2) and loans to small and micro-enterprises. „Indeed, interest rate ceilings lead to credit rationing for economic agents whose credit risk is higher than the ceiling.

The lower the maximum interest rate, the higher the number of potential borrowers who do not have access to formal loans, delaying the process of financial inclusion. Excluded economic agents are usually those with lower incomes or new entrepreneurs without a credit history or collateral, they say. The conventional maximum equalization and moratorium interest rates set out in the present circular shall enter into force progressively in accordance with the following adjustment plan: Article 1243 of the Civil Code (1984) stipulates that the maximum conventional equalization or moratorium interest rate shall be set by the Central Bank of Peru. Law No. 26702, General Law on the Financial and Insurance System and Organic Law on the Supervision of Banks and Insurance (1996), stipulates that enterprises in the financial system are free to declare interest rates, commissions and expenses for their active and passive operations and services. However, the General Law of the Financial System stipulates that when setting interest rates, companies in the financial system must comply with the limits indicated by the Central Bank of Peru for this purpose, exceptionally in accordance with the provisions of the Organic Law of the Central Bank of Peru. „This maximum interest rate is equal to 2 times the average consumer credit interest rate in the financial system and will come into effect on May 10, 2021,” the company explains. In recent months, the question of whether to cap the interest rates charged by companies in the financial system on the loans they grant has been the subject of much debate. The discussion was accompanied by phrases such as „usury” and „abuse,” and even comments from members of Congress who stressed the need to regulate the interest rate on „profits made in the financial system” and „the difference between investment and deposit rates.” The discussion, in my opinion, is not whether companies in the financial system make profits or not, much less by the amounts they receive, but why other alternatives could lower the interest rate that is demanded not only by companies in the financial system, but by any other lender, by commercial houses that can give their customers direct loans to anyone. who has an interest in granting a loan.

for whatever reason. In this context, according to a study by the Supervisory Authority of Banking, Insurance and AFP, the average interest rate of a new low-income borrower is halved after two years, once a credit history has been established. The Board of Directors of the Central Bank (BCR) decided to establish the methodology for setting maximum rates for new consumer credit, consumer credit of a small amount (less than or equal to 2 tax units) and new credit for small and micro-enterprises. The conventional balancing ratio of credit operations for monetary regulation (Article 58 of the Organic Law of the Central Bank) is set by the Board of Directors of the Central Bank and communicated periodically in the monetary program. The legal interest rate corresponds to the FMPMN. B. For the calculation of the amounts for the period from May 10, 2021 to May 31, 2021. The October 2021 maximum interest rates, i.e.

the average of month-end observations of the average financial system interest rates for consumer credit, as set out in sections I.A.1.a and II.A.1 of this Circular, are used. corresponds to the period from October 2020 to March 2021. Currently, Circular No. 0018-2019-BCRP is in force, by which the Central Bank of Peru has set the conventional maximum interest rates of equalization and moratorium applicable to transactions between persons outside the financial system and to the active and passive operations of entities in the financial system. The maximum conventional default interest rate corresponds to 15% of the maximum extrajudicial interest rate and applies in addition to the conventional interest rate or, where applicable, the legal interest rate. The law on the guarantee of furniture, with some defects, has had an impact on the interest rate charged for financing, and I expect that once Legislative Decree No. 1400, the legislative decree approving the furniture guarantee system, comes into force, we will be able to see a greater reduction in the interest rate and a greater increase in supplier loans. Similarly, and as an example of the above, we see how the use of private and more efficient enforcement mechanisms, such as trusts, helps to reduce the risk of enforcement, which results in a reduction in interest rates that could be calculated, but always on the basis of the freedom of the contracting parties to set them. depending on the credit risk of creditors. From the above, we have that there is a „mixed” system in Peru with regard to interest rates.

On the one hand, we have that it is free (since the parties are free to agree on the amount of interest to be collected) and with ceilings (according to what is indicated in Circular No. 0018-2019-BCRP) for operations outside the financial system; and on the other hand, we have that it is free and unlimited for the financial system, without prejudice to the fact that the Central Bank of Peru may, exceptionally, set limits in accordance with the provisions of the Organic Law of the Central Bank of Peru. This last point makes perfect sense, given that, according to Peru`s political constitution, this autonomous body is responsible for monetary stability and one of its tasks is to regulate the currency and credit of the financial system. The fact that the board of directors of this central bank, in the exercise of the powers conferred on it by Articles 1242°, 1243° and 1244° of the Civil Code, Article 9° of Law No. 26702 and its amendments, the General Law on the Financial and Insurance System and the Organic Law of the Banking, Insurance and FAP Supervisory Authority, and Articles 51 and 52 of its Organic Law and in accordance with the provisions of Law No. 31143, Law protecting consumers of financial services against usury, decided to set maximum conventional interest rates for compensatory and standstill interest rates applicable to the commercial activities of enterprises in the financial system in their portfolios of consumer credit, consumer credit of small amounts (equal to or less than 2 tax units) and credit to small and micro-enterprises, and to modify the maximum rates of conventional compensatory and standstill interest rates for transactions between persons outside the financial system.

T/C Meaning Legal

See also „View” above. „vs.” is used in most scholarly writings in other fields, but „v.” is used in legal writing only. Try searching one of the following print sources for legal abbreviations that were not found online. These publications are available regularly in legal and other libraries. In legal documents, it is common to cite other publications using standard abbreviations for the title of each source. Abbreviations can also be found for common words or legal phrases. These quotes and abbreviations can be found in court decisions, laws, regulations, journal articles, books and other documents. Below is a basic list of very common abbreviations. Since publishers have different practices regarding printing abbreviations, abbreviations can be found with or without dots for each letter. For example, the Code of Federal Regulations may be abbreviated to „C.F.R.” or simply „CFR.” For abbreviations that are not on this list, here are some other websites to look for: Tribunal Constitucional (Spanish, Portuguese and some Latin American constitutional courts)Competition Tribunal (Canadian Competition Court).

Swansea Entry Requirements

Compare Swansea University`s academic grading requirements with those of other Advanced Welsh Baccalaureate universities – applicants can meet our requirements of three A or two A-levels and the Skills Challenge certificate. Percentage of system requirements for universities worldwide Check out our English language requirements pages for a range of tips, including requirements for students from predominantly English-speaking countries and approved tests. International applicants must demonstrate a good command of English. English language requirements are typically assessed against the formal IELTS (International English Language Testing System) score of 6.0 for undergraduate degrees and IELTS 6.5 (or equivalent) for postgraduate degrees. Admission requirements for individual courses can vary considerably. If you are currently studying for non-UK qualifications or hold a non-UK qualification, you will need to obtain an appropriate equivalent to gain access to our courses at Swansea University. **We guarantee that you will receive a conditional offer for a course at Swansea University. Technical requirements apply. Please come to our next open day or contact us for more information.** All students applying to Swansea University must prove that they have sufficient language skills to study the chosen course.

English language requirements are displayed on every course page, so we recommend checking them before applying. *The above scores are the average scores that universities have accepted in the past. Future score requirements can vary widely and successful admission depends on many other factors in addition to academic entry/score. Contact our consultants for assistance. We offer over 500 undergraduate programs and over 130 postgraduate programs, including MBA (AMBA accredited) and LLM. Entry requirements can be found here: International Office Swansea University Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP United Kingdom fax: +44 1792 295 839 Tel: +44 1792 295 818 or 602365 e-mail: At our undergraduate open days, you can meet current academic staff and students and get from the course modules, the range of support services, teaching facilities and accommodation options that make the student experience in Swansea so high. In addition to our undergraduate open days, you can also arrange tailor-made tours on a weekday that suits you, email us at ido@swansea to arrange a tour. Full details of additional opportunities to visit can be found here: If you don`t meet the academic requirements for our undergraduate and postgraduate programs, don`t panic! You have the option of taking a core, integrated first-year or pre-master`s programme at Swansea University College, which then leads to a degree from Swansea University. Applicants who are applying for a first degree in engineering and science and who are not qualified for direct entry into the first year of a degree program may be considered for entry into a four-year integrated program of study. For more details, please refer to the corresponding topic entries.

These internship years increase our students` confidence and communication skills and help them gain valuable experience that ultimately improves their employability. For more information, please visit All our minimum entry requirements and relevant country information are available on our respective country pages, or you can download our full global lists: Admission requirements for individual courses can vary greatly. For advice on the suitability of qualifications, write to the university`s admissions office or download the undergraduate (international) entry requirements (Adobe PDF). The following entry points are available for this course: This is only a guide, as other factors are considered when assessing your eligibility. Some courses may require additional requirements and/or specific topics relevant to your choice of degree. We encourage all participants to read our course pages carefully or inquire before applying. Here you can get an idea of who you could share a discussion and how they have progressed in this area. It is also interesting to compare typical A-level subjects and student grades with current course entry requirements. The similarities or differences here could indicate how flexible a university might be (or not). Admission requirements at Swansea University vary from course to course, and there are many alternative admission pathways alongside qualifications such as A-Levels and the BTEC National Diploma.

Prospective students are advised to search the university`s website for course-specific application details. Some degree programs have a requirement area, such as AAB-BBB, which indicates that when deciding to offer a place of study, the university considers other aspects of an application, such as personal statement, expected grades, or relevant work experience. Advanced Project Qualification – Applicants who predicted a grade of B or higher in EPQ will receive an offer with a discount of one grade. For example, an offer from AAB would be ABB plus EPQ B. ** Did you know that all our courses are available with a year in the industry or a year abroad? ** 5 in NS or 6 in two of biology, chemistry, computer science, electronics, additional mathematics, mathematics (each variant), physics, psychology, statistics (economics can replace psychology) and 5 in English SL. We encourage applicants to describe QPE research in the UCAS personal statement, especially if it is relevant to their intended course and/or career. If you already have an application for 2022 and are in compensation, you can add this course as a compensation selection – contact the university or college first to check if they have places. Please select a course option to view course information. We have calculated the number of UCAS points you need for this course. May be considered in conjunction with other qualifications Contact us if you are unsure if you have the appropriate experience or qualifications. b) Bachelor`s degree (or equivalent work experience) I was in my first year at the Student Village with other British students.

The best thing about living with other students is that I can improve my English and get to know different UK cultures and other people who live here. This is taken from the survey on the destination of higher education leavers, based on the responses of graduates who studied the same topic here. Volume 1: Arts, Social Sciences, Business and Management, Economics, Law, Mathematics: £9,500 We use a variety of methods to assess your learning in all midwifery modules, including courses, written exams, medication calculation exams, multiple choice question checks, structured objective clinical exams (OSCE Practical), the practice portfolio and poster presentations. Name: Mark Shilin Wong Age: 23 Country of origin: Chinese Program: BA Economics Choose where you currently live to see what you`re paying for: All university housing is conveniently located on campus or within walking distance. Most are single rooms with free internet access and a telephone from which you can make free calls in the university network. Professional Body Accreditation This programme is accredited by the British Computer Society and allows graduates to join immediately as professional members. Admissions Office, Swansea University, Singleton ParkSwansea, Wales SA2 8PP, United Kingdom (UK) Computer facilities You will be taught in our new £32.5 million computer foundry, a world-class centre with state-of-the-art teaching and research facilities, as well as networking and meeting rooms for students, academics and industries. Our facilities include; ¢ Vision and Biometric Lab ⢠Maker Labs ⢠FIT Lab [Future Interaction Technologies] ⢠Theory Lab ⢠Cyber Security Lab ⢠User Experience Lab ⢠Visualisation Suite. Our three-year midwifery course will help you develop the clinical and interpersonal expertise to ensure a woman`s physical and emotional well-being during pregnancy, childbirth and early parenthood. You will learn how to analyse, evaluate and critique research studies to support reflective and evidence-based studies and practices.

Super Winner Sling Puck Game Rules

As soon as you start playing, you feel the competition and the desire to win with this fast-paced board game. Our quick puck game has two sizes, large size is suitable for adults, small size is suitable for kids. It can bring you an exciting gaming experience at the party, bring a happy and harmonious laugh in parent-child interaction, in and Boyfriends bring joy when they play, it is also a nice gift for family and friends Learn how to control pucks and aim for direction, also get the skill of sling strategy We strive to: A simpler, healthier, joyful and interesting lifestyle. Through fun games and safety toys, primary children are not addicted to electronic devices, experience real-life happiness, develop social skills, promote friendly communication between children and promote a more harmonious parent-child relationship, cultivate optimism and bottom-up thinking and psychology, and make life more joyful, harmony, health and beauty Whether you like to play drinking games or just want to challenge a friend, The SlingPuck is a game that will light up your group! 2. Start the game and place five pucks on each side of the board. Slide both ends of the rubber band into the side grooves so that they snap into place. Both players applauded the „High Ten” style to start the game. When a player throws a disc off the board, it is returned to the player who started it – accuracy is key! Although it is simple in principle, this fast-paced game can run in no time. For every disc you send, your opponent can send one back at the same time! You have to be fast and precise to win. This is a 2 player game, so please invite a friend! Place five washers on each side of the board. The player uses a bungee rope to start the hockey ball and pass through the goal. Then fill and pull as soon as possible. Whoever finishes all hockey first will win.

Sling Puck Challenge is an adult variant of the game that uses the same game board. You play as in the normal game. However, the loser of the round must take a hit from an alcoholic beverage. The videos showed the puck game in a party environment and were played like a drinking game. The rules of the game also changed, you no longer had to take turns and it became a fast-paced game. Even the loser had to drink. Although the rules are simple, there are subtle strategies in this game. Also, you should practice pulling your pucks to win all your games. Super Sling Puck is a game that the whole family can enjoy.

Kids, teens and adults will love the fast-paced action that facilitates friendly family competition. It`s the perfect complement to game night and precious family time away from electronics. ✔ High quality and durable – You won`t break your quick puck on a frenetic play. The board and washers are made of high quality wood. Both washer fuses are made of a strong and resistant elastic band. Great content on homemade puck play. Here you can see the best Sling Puck game board The Sling Puck was first developed in 2005. It was marketed to a hockey fan game because the platform and pucks give the atmosphere of a hockey game. Originally, it was a kind of strategy game, as players had to take turns shooting pucks. All your friends and family will watch the game with passion, as if they were watching a real competitive match and cheering on their favorite player. This is a fun way to add an extra level of difficulty to the game if you`re only playing with a 21+ audience. Sling Puck is a two-player game in which players use a rubber band to quickly pull hockey puck shaped discs onto a wooden board.

The goal is to throw each puck through a central opening and land on the opposing side. The first player to erase his side of the board wins. With this board game, you will attract everyone`s attention, they will look at you, cheer you up, shout and maybe even try to disturb your opponent to let him go. You only need 10 pucks to play Sling Puck, so you can use a mix of the two colors or switch between the two sets while you play. It`s also a great backup in case you lose one of the disks. For experienced players, Punisher is an interesting variant of the game. Every time you start an ice hockey ball without going through the door. Excitement encourages the child to react faster and more accurately to the noose Let the kids get along well during the table game, have fun with the family too Throw all the pucks into the opposite area of the player and win! Family entertainment / birthday party / Christmas gifts. A sports board game, ideal for family and social activities with children and friends! Kids can play games with 3 friends.

The player uses a rubber band to pull the puck out of the door until there is no puck next to it. Players don`t turn, they fill up and shoot as fast as possible. Whoever passes the advice first wins. SlingPuck is a fast-paced game in which 2 players compete by shooting pucks on the opposing side. The first player without a puck wins. Whether you want this game to be played as a family, for your kids, as a gift, or to have fun at parties, this is a great game that will appeal to everyone. In 2020, this game really took a turn, with viral videos posted on TikTok that allowed the world to discover this great game. Has the power been cut off again? It doesn`t matter, we don`t need electricity to have fun here. Yinz wanted to play air hockey? Well, I guess that`s not going to happen now, but we can try this quick Super Sling Puck board game instead.

It`s easy to learn how to play! This Super Sling Puck game is fun for the whole family. In the box, you will find a 22″ W x 11.5″ W x 1.2″ H wooden game board. It is a natural wood with black and red accent text. You will also find twenty disc-shaped tiles – 10 in natural color and 10 in black. Instruction for use:1. 2-player game2. Start the game and place five pucks on each side of the board. Slide both ends of the rubber band into the side grooves so that they snap into place. Both players applauded the „High Ten” style to start the game.3.

The player uses a rubber band to pull the puck out of the door until there is no puck next to it.