More recently, ovens have become a bit more high-tech in terms of cooking strategy. The microwave as a cooking tool was discovered by Percy Spencer in 1946 and, with the help of engineers, the microwave oven was patented.  The microwave oven uses microwave radiation to excite water molecules in food, causing friction and thus generating heat.  In the context of furnaces, the term „convection” is often used to mean „fan assisted”, but this may not be the most accurate way to distinguish fan-assisted ovens from conventional ovens, as both types of ovens cook with convective heat transfer (heat transfer due to the mass movement of hot air). Conventional ovens circulate hot air with natural convection and fan-assisted ovens circulate hot air with forced convection, so the term „convection” also applies scientifically to conventional ovens (natural convection) and fan-assisted ovens (forced convection). Explore Whirlpool brand assortments and wall ovens with True Convection Cooking to find the model with the features you need. With convection roast, meats like chicken and turkey can get a delicious crispy outer layer while remaining juicy inside. Cookies and brownies can also cook better without having to turn or change shelves throughout the baking cycle. For best results, use multi-rack baking by centering your baking pans on multiple racks in the oven cavity. A combination steamer is an oven that combines convection functionality with superheated steam to cook food even faster and retain more nutrients and moisture. Toaster ovens are essentially small ovens and can be used to cook food other than just grilling. A front door is opened, horizontally aligned slices of bread (or other foods) are placed on a rack with heating elements above and below, and the door is closed. The control is set and operated to roast the bread to the desired degree of baking, after which the heating elements are switched off.
In most cases, the door has to be opened manually, but there are also toaster ovens with doors that open automatically. Since bread is horizontal, a toaster can be used to bake toast with toppings such as garlic bread, melting sandwiches, or roast cheese. Toaster ovens are usually slower than pop-up toasters, taking 4 to 6 minutes versus 2 to 3 minutes.  In addition to automatic roasting settings, toaster ovens typically have temperature settings and controls that allow the appliance to be used as a small oven. When cooking with a fan-assisted oven, the temperature is usually lower than that of a fanless oven, often around 40°F (20°C) to avoid overcooking the outside of food. The environment of conventional electric and gas ovens is ideal for cooking a variety of desserts, such as: Depending on your family`s needs, convection and conventional ovens can offer benefits that help ensure the smooth running of dinner preparation and you spend more time enjoying meals rather than preparing them. Learn more about the benefits of a convection oven below: Stoves also differ in how they are controlled. Simplest ovens (like the AGA stove) may have no controls at all.
The ovens simply run continuously at different temperatures. More conventional ranges have a simple thermostat that turns the oven on and off and selects the temperature at which it operates. Set to the highest setting, this can also activate the broiler element. A timer can automatically turn the oven on and off at preset times. More sophisticated ovens may have complex computerized controls that allow for a variety of operating modes and special features, including the use of a temperature sensor to automatically turn off the oven when food is fully cooked to the desired level. There are many methods by which different types of stoves generate heat. Some stoves heat materials with the combustion of a fuel such as wood, coal, or natural gas, while many use electricity. Microwave ovens heat materials by exposing them to microwave radiation, while electric ovens and electric ovens heat materials by resistive heating. Some furnaces use forced convection, the movement of gases in the heating chamber to improve the heating process or, in some cases, to change the properties of the material to be heated, as in the Bessemer method of steelmaking.
Conventional ovens have heating elements at the top and bottom of the oven cavity. Convection ovens have these elements in addition to a fan that helps circulate hot air through the oven cavity. This can help ensure that dishes placed on different shelves are cooked at a similar pace. Some models also incorporate a third heating element at the back of the cavity. At the beginning of the 19th century, the coal stove was developed. It had a cylindrical shape and was made of heavy cast iron. The gas stove was also used for the first time in the early 19th century. Gas stoves became very common home stoves as soon as gas lines became available for most homes and neighborhoods. James Sharp patented one of the first gas stoves in 1826. Other improvements to the gas stove were the AGA stove, invented by Gustaf Dalén in 1922.
The first electric ovens were built at the end of the 19th century. Like many electrical inventions intended for commercial use, mass ownership of electric furnaces could not become a reality until better and more efficient use of electricity was available.  One of the effects of the fan is to reduce the thickness of the stationary thermal boundary layer of cooler air that naturally forms around the food. The boundary layer acts as an insulator, slowing down the rate at which heat reaches food. By moving (convecting) fresh air away from food, the layer is thinned and cooking is faster. To avoid overcooking before cooking the center, the temperature is usually reduced by about 20°C (40°F). Since the air is well mixed, the oven also has a very uniform temperature. There are also convection microwave ovens that combine a convection oven with a microwave oven to cook food at the speed of a microwave oven and the browning capacity of a convection oven. Modern furnaces usually run on natural gas or electricity, with cylindrical gas models available but not common. If an oven is included in a complete range, the fuel used for the stove may be the same or different from the fuel used for burners on the stove. The Whirlpool brand offers a wide range of conventional gas and electric stoves, as well as wall ovens to complement a separate hob.
An oven is a tool used to expose materials to a hot environment. Ovens contain a hollow chamber and provide a way to heat the chamber in a controlled manner.  In use since ancient times, they were used for a variety of tasks that required controlled heating.  Since they are used for a variety of purposes, there are many types of ovens. These types differ depending on their intended use and how they generate heat. Ovens can usually use a variety of methods for cooking. The most common may be to heat the stove from below. This is often used for cooking and frying. The oven can also be heated from the top to allow grilling (US) or grilling (UK/Commonwealth).
A fan-assisted oven that uses a small fan to circulate air through the cooking chamber can be used.   Both are also called convection ovens.