What Are the Legal Implications Related to Medication Administration

Due to the high cost of drugs in the United States, some patients try to buy drugs from other countries where they cost less and are easier to buy – usually in Mexico or Canada. While inexpensive drugs can be good for patients, in some cases there is a risk that the drugs are not pure, are not the drugs patients think they are buying, or even be dangerous. Drugs originating in China or India often look like real medicines, but may be fake. It is difficult to know whether medicines sold in other countries or via the Internet are genuine. Currently, it is not legal to buy drugs from other countries and bring them into the United States. The FDA opposes patients receiving drugs that cannot be proven to meet the high standards of the United States. 8. Make a list of what to do if you make a medication error. The overall goal of health care interventions is to ensure safe, high-quality patient care [12] through the safe and effective use of drugs to treat disease [13].

Globally, the demand for prescription drugs to treat chronic and age-related diseases is increasing. In Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, for example, retail medicines accounted for one-fifth of all health spending in 2017, averaging USD 564 per person [14]. Medications have the ability to prevent, treat and cure disease, but errors in the medication process that determine how drugs are used can cause harm. Therefore, the nature of drug therapy requires that systems be in place to ensure the correct use of drugs and that all drug-related transactions be governed by appropriate laws and regulations [10]. This systematic review expands our knowledge of the legal considerations of medication management in health care by integrating the results of qualitative and quantitative empirical studies. Medication administration is an essential task that nurses perform during patient care. However, the safe administration of medication is more than just a nursing task; It is a process involving several members of the health team, as well as legal, ethical, social and cultural issues. Patient safety is the primary goal of effective medication delivery by all healthcare professionals. Although many steps have been taken in recent decades to improve patient safety, medication errors and side effects are still common. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates: „Unsafe medical practices and medication errors are one of the leading causes of preventable injury and damage in health systems worldwide.

Globally, the cost of medication errors is estimated at $42 billion per year. [1] This chapter examines the legal and ethical basis for the administration of medications by nurses, as well as the standards of practice, and cultural and social issues that must be addressed to ensure safe and effective medication administration. Measures to ensure the implementation of legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to the use of safe medicines depend on the training of health personnel and the monitoring of the application of safety rules. Unmet educational needs in pharmacology and medication management, as well as ineffective evaluation of drug practices, are common issues affecting patient safety across all health disciplines [33]. Legal knowledge and legal considerations related to medication management are often under-represented in health care curricula [34]. However, the development of medication management skills requires adequate clinical training and oversight [35,36] and should include the appropriate use of standardized checklists and the development of action plans to bridge the gap between policy development and implementation in practice [37]. Standardized checklists of safe medicines as surveillance tools have been shown to be effective in preventing failures and reducing the frequency of adverse events by ensuring implementation of the law and adherence to relevant guidelines [38]. These findings can be used to develop a framework for action to improve medication management safety and avoid legal issues that affect both the health care provider and the patient. The Equality Act 2010 legally protects people from discrimination. It combines previous anti-discrimination laws (such as the Disability Act 1995) with a single law.5 You will be classified as disabled under the Equality Act 2010 if you have a physical or mental impairment that has a `significant` and `long-term` negative impact on your ability to engage in normal daily activities. 6 Difficulty swallowing is likely to be long-term and has a significant impact on a person`s ability to perform normal activities such as eating and drinking.

Gøtzsche et al. highlighted the problems of non-compliance with the law and patients` rights during the medication process: 30 consecutive calls for forced use of mental health medication were reported. These included lack of evaluation of patients` medical records, lack of expert consultation on the need for prescriptions, selection of drugs with the highest risk of adverse reactions (olanzapine, risperidone, zuclopenthixol, paliperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole), injection instead of oral administration, exceeding manufacturer`s recommended doses, inability to attempt to involve the patient and to motivate patient to voluntarily accept treatment before forced use; and lack of documentation for mandatory prescriptions and the patient`s inability to provide informed consent [31]. Physical dependence refers to the physiological need for medication to relieve tremors, pain, or other symptoms. Psychological dependence, on the other hand, refers to anxiety, stress, or tension experienced when the patient does not have the medication. One type of addiction often leads to another; They are often found together in the same person. Nurses administering medications must follow three levels of rules: The integration of medication management programs into the electronic health record system has been important. Structured medication interventions with computerized decision support systems improve the relevance and accuracy of medication regimens in hospitalized patients [59]. Despite current gaps in updated protocols for new drugs, the use of electronic medication prescribing systems can improve patient safety by improving interprofessional communication and accountability [60]. For example, the use of digital devices that remind patients to take a pill, check actual consumption, collect related data and send it to a remote computer system has been helpful. However, this raises questions about patients` rights to autonomy and potentially violates privacy rights through the secondary use of patient and healthcare provider data, with implications for accountability [61,62].

A pre-piloted data extraction table was developed to import data from selected studies and classify them by author name, year of publication, country, design, sample size and frame, and key findings on the legal aspects of medication management in healthcare. Prior to full data extraction, the table was pilot-tested to ensure that it met the purpose of the review by including the data required for knowledge analysis [20]. 2. Explain what is meant by „planned drugs” or „controlled substances” and provide examples of drugs in the various schedules. Medication management principles developed on the basis of legislation and regulations should be clearly communicated to health care professionals through guidelines for essential use in clinical practice [18,19]. From prescribing to administering a medication to a patient, doctors, nurses and pharmacists work together as a multidisciplinary team. However, problems may arise due to the lack of clarity in legal regulations for medication management [18]. Costs related to additional hospitalization, litigation costs, hospital-acquired infections, loss of income, disability and medical expenses are estimated to be between $6 billion and $29 billion per year [5]. Over-the-counter medications are also given to patients hospitalized for minor problems. Although these drugs do not require a prescription for purchase, a doctor`s prescription is required before they can be administered in the hospital. In fact, patients hospitalized without a prescription cannot even take their own over-the-counter medications to be taken to the hospital. This Directive is necessary for safety reasons.

If patients could take their own medications in addition to medications administered by hospital staff, it could lead to a drug overdose. Chances are, some of you didn`t know that in addition to the well-known 5-day right to administer medication, some experts added 3 more to the list. When it comes to patient safety, it`s never a bad time to review some of the basics and raise awareness of the new recommendations. In order to maximize the number of studies obtained, a pilot search was conducted in general and specialized databases based on our experience in medication management.